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julius caesar civil war

Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. Instead, they remained in Italy. This manoeuvre would have ensured that Caesar would retain his commands until the end of 49 bce. He then crushed Pompey’s army in Spain. Download: A text-only version is available for download. Caesar amnestied his opponents wholesale and gave a number of them responsible positions in his new regime. Caesar won, along with conservative Marcus Bibulus. After this, Pompey irresolutely veered further and further away from Caesar, until, when the breach finally came, Pompey found himself committed to the nobility’s side, though he and the nobility never trusted each other. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. All content copyright © 1995–2020 Livius.org. The alliance was patched up in April 56 bce at a conference at Luca (Lucca), just inside Caesar’s province of Cisalpine Gaul. This issue had already been the object of a series of political manoeuvres and countermanoeuvres at Rome. To him, the situation was clear: the Senate had seven legions in Hispania without commander, and Pompey was in Greece without army. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! In 47 bce he fought a brief local war in northeastern Anatolia with Pharnaces, king of the Cimmerian Bosporus, who was trying to regain Pontus, the kingdom of his father, Mithradates. (The question whether this was lawful remains unanswered: in 52, the People's Assembly had allowed Caesar to run for consul without being present.) $19.99. Julius Caesar conquers Gaul and ignites a civil war. He increased the size of the Senate and made its personnel more representative of the whole Roman citizenry. Rome was officially in a civil war. I think it needless to say any thing here, in opposition to those who pretend, that the following Commentaries, concerning the Civil War, were not penned by Caesar himself. He found that he could not extricate himself from this dilemma by reducing his demands, as he eventually did, to the absolute minimum required for his security. Julius Caesar, marble bust; in the Vatican Museums, Vatican City. Crassus was less fortunate: after his consulship, he became governor of Syria with special prerogatives, but was defeated by the Parthians, who lived in Mesopotamia and Iran. Commentary: A few comments have been posted about The Civil Wars. For Caesar's soldiers, on the other hand, everything depended on this one campaign: if they failed, they would never receive their pension. Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions, begun with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome. Caesar had the support of the people and Pompey had the support of the aristocrats. In doing so, he crossed the river Rubicon, thereby invading Italy and provoking the Second Civil War. Caesar then returned to Rome, but a few months later, now with the title of dictator, he left for Africa, where his opponents had rallied. At his death, Caesar was on the point of starting out on a new military campaign to avenge and retrieve Crassus’s disastrous defeat in 53 bce by the Parthians. They had been goaded into this volte-face by the increasingly monarchical trend of Caesar’s regime and, perhaps at least as much, by the aristocratic disdain that inhibited Caesar from taking any trouble to sugar the bitter pill. The actual question of substance was whether the misgovernment of the Greco-Roman world by the Roman nobility should be allowed to continue or whether it should be replaced by an autocratic regime. Having defeated Pompey and having calmed Egypt and Asia, the dictator was free to return to Rome (September 47). As had been agreed at Luca in 56 bce, Caesar’s commands had been prolonged for five years, apparently until February 28, 49 bce, but this is not certain. He fought Pompey, another Roman general, and defeated him. This eventually happened in the battle of Pharsalus, where Caesar's more experienced men overcame Pompey's larger army (9 August; text; another text). As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential … Caesar pursued Pompey from Thessaly to Egypt, where Pompey was murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy. He had been out of Rome for six months. He started to train his army in the valley of the Moselle, far away from the Senate's spies. However, it turned out that the Senate had made a disastrous mistake. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. It is probably at this early stage of the war, that constituted the Sixteenth legion. In 49 bce Caesar drove his opponents out of Italy to the eastern side of the Straits of Otranto. ), The united army, however, was defeated (7 July), and Caesar had only one option: to march inland, cross the Pindus mountains and defeat Pompey's pursuing army somewhere in Greece on a more suitable place. The issue was brought to a head by one of the consuls for 50 bce, Gaius Claudius Marcellus. Caesar had not hesitated to commit atrocities against “barbarians” when it had suited him, but he was almost consistently magnanimous in his treatment of his defeated Roman opponents. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Free shipping . He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of … If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. He had less than a year’s grace for this huge task of reconstruction before his assassination in 44 bce in the Senate House at Rome on March 15 (the Ides of March). Only guesses are possible, for Caesar’s assassination condemned the Romans to another 13 years of civil war, and Rome would never again possess sufficient manpower to conquer and hold Babylonia. If there were to be an interval, Caesar would be a private person during that time, vulnerable to attack by his enemies; if prosecuted and convicted, he would be ruined politically and might possibly lose his life. By this time, however, the three parties that counted politically were all entrapped. Massilia refuses to admit Caesar. In 46 he crushed their army at Thapsus and returned to Rome, only to leave in November for Farther Spain to deal with a fresh outbreak of resistance, which he crushed on March 17, 45 bce, at Munda. This was only a part of what he did to resettle his discharged soldiers and the urban proletariat of Rome. XIX.--Between Pompey's and Caesar's camp there was only the river Apsus, and … But Italy was skeptical about its champions, and showed little enthusiasm to defend the senatorial constitution. Painting by … Meanwhile the cohesion of the triumvirate had been placed under strain. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. Would Caesar’s military genius have outweighed this handicap? However, the question of replacing Caesar was actually raised in the Senate a number of times from 51 bce onward; each time Caesar had the dangerous proposals vetoed by tribunes of the plebs who were his agents—particularly Gaius Scribonius Curio in 50 bce and Mark Antony in 49 bce. Julius Caesar began a civil war in Rome by defeating other members of the Triumvirate to become the dictator with total power. Senator Pompey fled across the Adriatic Sea and commanded his allies in Greece to raise troops to help him defend the Republic. on the banks of the Rubicon, Julius Caesar faced a critical choice. Unable to raise armies, the Senate was helpless. After Crassus' death, only Pompey and Caesar remained, and the Senate feared a civil war from which a king would arise. Home » Articles » Person » Caesar » Caesar (06), About Pictures Sources Countries Languages Categories Tags Thanks FAQ Donate Contact Articles Stubs. Pompey's soldiers were enlisted in four new Caesarian legions (XXXIV-XXXVII). If Caesar refused to obey, he would be declared an enemy of the state; the Senate would be forced to appoint a commander with extraordinary powers. Pompey had soon become restive toward his alarmingly successful ally Caesar, as had Crassus toward his old enemy Pompey. bce , Rome [Italy]—died March 15, 44 bce , Rome), celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (58–50 bce ), victor in the civil war of 49–45 bce , and dictator (46–44 bce ), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March. The Civil War is Caesar's masterly account of the celebrated war between himself and his great rival Pompey, from the crossing of the Rubicon in January 49 B.C. At least, that is what Caesar said. The Civil Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [145k] Book 2 [83k] He found time in the year 46 bce to reform the Roman calendar. An overview of Cleopatra's relationship with Julius Caesar. In some ways more accurate than Suetonius and other Roman historians, it provides a first hand account of the battles between Pompey and Caesar that marked the first Roman civil war. Caesar's own legions were sent back to Italy (except for the Sixth): some of their soldiers had been in his service for twelve years, and they were looking forward to their pension. Either alternative would result in a disastrous civil war. Now, Pompey was ready to return to Italy to attack Caesar. On January 1, 49 bce, the Senate received from Caesar a proposal that he and Pompey should lay down their commands simultaneously. The answer can only be guessed from what he did do in the few months available. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. When they arrived, they learned that Pompey had been murdered by soldiers of the ten-year-old king Ptolemy XIII, who hoped to gain Caesar's support in his quarrel with his older sister Cleopatra VII. ''The Commentaries on the Civil War'' is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. (The tense atmosphere of distrust is described here.) Meanwhile, Crassus still had never completely overcome his … He then returned to Rome to start putting the Greco-Roman world in order. After some deliberations, Pompey obeyed the Senate. Caesar’s famous words, Veni, vidi, vici (“I came, I saw, I conquered”), are his own account of this campaign. All rights reserved. $21.10. The first bout of the civil war moved swiftly. The Battle of Munda was fought in March 45 BC and was the final battle of Julius Caesar's civil war and allowed him to return to Rome to rule as dictator. Curio then obtained on December 1, 50 bce, a resolution (by 370 votes to 22) that both men should lay down their commands simultaneously. It turned out differently, because Caesar was in fact furious that he was not given the chance to pardon his eternal rival Pompey. Caesar's death resulted in a long series of civil wars that ended in the death of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire. Civil War Against Pompey As Julius Caesar’s power and prestige grew, Pompey grew envious of his political partner. Gaius Julius Caesar: Civil War Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. He was unaware of the fact that his opponents, the last republican diehards, had been able to regroup in Africa while he was honeymooning in Egypt. Winning the war, Caesar became Roman dictator for life. He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of a truly Mediterranean empire. $9.99. See if your head can wear the crown of knowledge with this quiz. Caesar’s message was peremptory, and the Senate resolved that Caesar should be treated as a public enemy if he did not lay down his command “by a date to be fixed.”. He rushed to Córdoba in Andalusia, where two legions (commanded by Marcus Terentius Varro) surrendered to Caesar (September). If Caesar had not been murdered in 44 bce, he might have lived on for 15 or 20 years. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? Again, Caesar showed clemency, sparing the enemy commanders and disbanding the defeated legions. If the latter obeyed, he was no longer immune to prosecution. Crassus was killed in action at Carrhae in 53. The Internet Classics Archive | The Civil Wars by Julius Caesar. One of the camps has been identified at Hermeskeil. In a secret alliance with Cicero, Octavian promised to veterans and soldiers that he will revenge Caesar’s death and he will generously reward anyone who move on to his side. Caesar’s success in building up his political power had made the champions of the old regime so implacably hostile to him that he was now faced with a choice between putting himself at his enemies’ mercy or seizing the monopoly of power at which he was accused of aiming. Some stood to lose, rather than to gain, personally by the removal of the autocrat who had made their political fortunes. Julius Caesar was assassinated by about 40 Roman senators on the "ides of March" (March 15) 44 BCE. In March, Caesar's colonel Mark Antony (82-30 BCE) managed to reinforce him with the other four legions. NOW 50% OFF! They also failed to recognize that by making Caesar a martyr they were creating his posthumous political fortune. (He had given it to all of Cisalpine Gaul, north of the Po, in 49 bce.) to Pompey's death and the start of the Alexandrian War in the autumn of the following year. If he brought his veteran armies across the river Rubicon in northern Italy, the Republic would be in a state of civil war. It was arranged that Pompey and Crassus were to be the consuls for 55 bce and were to get laws promulgated prolonging Caesar’s provincial commands for another five years and giving Crassus a five-year term in Syria and Pompey a five-year term in Spain. The civil war was a tragedy, for war was not wanted either by Caesar or by Pompey or even by a considerable part of the nobility, while the bulk of the Roman citizen body ardently hoped for the preservation of peace. Caesar then went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontus. The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul, Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45. Two additional legions were still on their way to Greece but would arrive soon. The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar. Crassus was then eliminated by an annihilating defeat at the Parthians’ hands in 53 bce. The mistake wasn't in letting the situation get that far, but in that they believed the Roman and Italian people would rally to defend the Republican system. Gaius Cassius Longinus, who was the moving spirit in the plot to murder him, and Marcus Junius Brutus, the symbolic embodiment of Roman republicanism, were both former enemies. Who was the Sailor King? “Et tu, Brute” (“You too, Brutus”) was Caesar’s expression of his particular anguish at being stabbed by a man whom he had forgiven, trusted, and loved. When Caesar met Cleopatra in Alexandria, he was captivated by the young woman's charms and chose her side in the Alexandrine War: in the spring of 47 BCE, he defeated Ptolemy. the supplement of dionysius vossius to caesar's first book of the civil war. These laws were duly passed. Caesar heard the news in Ravenna, and knew that he had to make a choice between prosecution and rebellion; preferring the dignity of war over the humiliation of a process, Caesar chose to rebel, quoting his favorite poet Menander, "the die is cast" (alea iacta est). The Civil Wars. He was in a better position than Caesar. Toward the end of 49 bce, he followed Pompey across the Adriatic Sea and retrieved a reverse at Dyrrachium by winning a decisive victory at Pharsalus on August 9, 48 bce. Moreover, the legions that were present in Italy, were unreliable: for example, the fifteenth had been with Caesar in Gaul. Rex Stout Nero Wolfe Mystery SOME BURIED CAESAR Unabridged Audio Book Cassette . Next day Marcellus (without authorization from the Senate) offered the command over all troops in Italy to Pompey, together with the power to raise more; and Pompey accepted. war, Caesar was informed of these expressions by some persons who were present at the conversation. The Fifteenth, which seems to have sided with Caesar, and the new Sixteenth were ordered to occupy Africa, but were annihilated. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. In 52 bce, a year in which Pompey was elected sole consul and given a five-year provincial command in Spain, Caesar was allowed by a law sponsored by all 10 tribunes to stand for the consulship in absentia. Caesar's perspectives did not look great: nine of his legions were still on duty in Gaul (text). Caesar’s death was partly due to his clemency and impatience, which, in combination, were dangerous for his personal security. It had believed that the issue was between a rebel and the legitimate rulers, and it had expected that the towns of Italy would send troops in defense of the authority of the Senate and the Roman People's liberties. Caesar had to make sure that, until his entry on his second consulship, he should continue to hold at least one province with the military force to guarantee his security. Cato had charged him with war crimes in Germania, and many people remembered Caesar's first consulship and the Spanish War. The subsequent partial recuperation of the Greco-Roman world under the principate suggests, however, that Caesarism was the lesser evil. The campaign of Ilerda and defeat of Afranius and Petreius. What would he have done with this time? 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And made its personnel more representative of the Straits of Otranto Caesar in Gaul ignites! New SEALED legion advanced to Rimini, where he could control the passes across river... Sufficed for this additional call upon it his legions were never employed in Syria his physical was.

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